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NS2 simulator inplementation of a new routing protocol

This project is all about implementing a new routing protocol for Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) on ns-2 simulator. It will be more or less coding in c/c++. The developer must have in-depth experince with ns-2 simulator and preferably experince with Mobile ad hoc networks.

Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a selfconfiguring

network of mobile nodes connected by wireless links.

Various routing protocols been proposed for effective

communication between mobile nodes. The success of routing

protocol highly depends on nodes cooperation. These routing

protocols operate on the basic assumption that all nodes are fully

cooperative. But because of open structure and limited batterybased

energy node misbehavior might take place. One such

misbehavior includes node takes part in route discovery and

maintenance phase but drops or refuses to forward data packets.

We proposed a 3-fold approach that deals with such

misbehavior.

We describe the algorithm for the new routing protocol. The coder is required to implement the new routing protocol in ns2 simulator. We provide the example AODV and DSR protocol implementation. We also provide a step to step guide of how to implement malicious packet dropping node in ns-2.

## Deliverables

HINT: step by step guide of how to add a malicious node to ns-2 is available at [url removed, login to view] .

A. Assumption

Following assumptions are made in our scheme:

1) All nodes may works in promiscuous mode.

2) Misbehaving nodes refuses to forward or drop data

packets only (i.e. not acknowledgement packets).

3) Misbehaving nodes does not work in groups.

B. Algorithm

In our scheme, as soon as the active route is found, all

nodes of active route are logically grouped into n sets (i.e. S1,

S2??Sn; n depends on the total number of nodes found on

active route.) such that first three consecutive nodes forms

first set S1, next three nodes forms second set S2 and so on.

For convenience we refer first nodes, middle node and last

node of a set as LNode, MNode, and RNode respectively. Last

set Sn may contain one or two nodes. If last set contain one

node then that node act as RNode and if it contain two nodes

then first act as LNode and other as RNode. Each RNode

acknowledges their LNode by sending an ACK-1 packet for

successful reception of every data packets. Now two

consecutive sets are grouped such that first and second set (i.e.

S1 & S2) forms first group G1, second and third set (i.e. S2 &

S3) forms second group G2 and so on. In a group, RNode of

second set acknowledges the successful reception of every

data packet by sending ACK-2 packet to LNode of first set.

Thus in all, a group is formed which consists of two sets

and each set consists of three consecutive nodes. First node of

a group will receive two acknowledgement packets (i.e. ACK-

1 from RNode of first set and ACK-2 packet from RNode of

second set). For example if

S?N1?N2?N3?N4?N5?N6?N7?D be the active

route then all nodes of active route are logically grouped into

three sets S1, S2 and S3. Set S1 consists of nodes

S?N1?N2, set S2 consists of nodes N3?N4?N5 and set

S3 consists of nodes N6?N7?D. Now groups are formed

such that Set S1 and Set S2 forms group G1. Set 2 and Set S3

forms group G2 as shown in Fig. 1.

In our scheme, each node maintains a LIST which consists

of ID of every data packets sent or forwarded. After

forwarding data packet to the next hop along the active route,

LNode of every group will make an entry of forwarded data

packet in the LIST and wait for ACK-1 and ACK-2 packet which are sent from RNode of first set and RNode of second

set respectively. Also ACK-1 and ACK-2 packet must be

received within time T1 and T2 respectively. From here our

proposed algorithm will execute.

BEGIN

For each group {

For each set

If

ACK-1 is not received within T1

Then

LNode observe the behavior of MNode for time

T3 by rating the behavior

And if

Rating fall certain threshold TS1

Then

LNode declares its MNode as

misbehaving node

Else

LNode declares its RNode as

misbehaving node

Else

Wait for ACK-2 for T2

End For

If

ACK-2 is not received within T2

Then

After T2 both MNode automatically goes to

promiscuous mode and start rating the behavior of

their RNodes till T4

And if

Rating falls below threshold TS2

Then

MNode declares its RNode as misbehaving node

Else

LNode of second set is declared as misbehaving

node

Else

LNode deletes the ID of corresponding data packet

from the LIST

}

End For

END.

C. Details

Proposed scheme consists of three steps:

1) Detection of malicious group: Before identifying

malicious or misbehaving node, network should be

aware that some malicious activity is present or not.

Suppose S?N1?N2?N3?N4?N5?N6?N7?D

be the active route discovered by some source

routing protocol like AODV [12] or DSR [13]. As

active route is discovered, source node S will start

our algorithm. Our algorithm will form n number of

sets and each set consists of three consecutive nodes

(i.e. LNode, MNode and RNode respectively).

LNode and RNode of any set act as temporary source and temporary destination. After forwarding data

packet to next hop along the active route, each

LNode makes an entry of forwarded data packet in

LIST and then waits for two acknowledgement

packets (i.e. ACK-1, ACK-2). If any ACK-1 or

ACK-2 packet is not received within their time limit

T1 and T2 respectively, that group is considered as

malicious group.

2) Identification of particular misbehaving node: If

ACK-1 is received within time T1 then LNode waits

for ACK-2 else observers its MNode for time T3 by

rating the behavior and if rating falls threshold TS1,

LNode declares its MNode as misbehaving nodes

and if not, LNode declares its RNode as misbehaving

nodes and then flood this information. If ACK-2 is

not received within time T2, then after time T2 both

MNode of that group automatically goes into

promiscuous mode and starts observing their next

hop node (i.e. RNode) for time T4. As now both

MNode are in promiscuous mode, these nodes counts

the number of packets coming into and going out of

each RNode within a group and when number of

dropped packets by any RNode exceeds threshold

TS2 within time T4, that RNode is declared as

misbehaving node and if not exceeded then LNode of

second set as is declared as misbehaving node.

Finally information of misbehaving node is flooded

across the network.

3) Isolation and mitigation of misbehaving node: Each

node of network maintains a LIST of misbehaving

nodes. Thus upon receiving information of

misbehaving nodes, each node update their LIST and

avoid using detected misbehaving node for time T5.

With the expiration of time T5, the entry of

misbehaving node is temporarily deleted from the

LIST thereby giving a chance to previously declared

misbehaving nodes to be used by network again and

if the same node is caught as misbehaving node more

than certain number of time (i.e. TS3) then that node

is permanently isolated from network.

In order to minimize additional routing overhead due to

transmission of acknowledgement packets, a fraction of data

packets will be acknowledged via a single acknowledgement

packet. We refer this fraction of data packets as FRACK.

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